Since spermatogenesis is a continuous process, which occurs throughout life, advanced paternal age frequently gets less consideration for childbearing. However, numerous reports have narrated a substantial impact of advanced paternal age on the time for pregnancy, adverse pregnancy outcomes and the birth of children with hereditary deformities. This topic introduces the outcome of advanced paternal age on losing fertility and elevated probability of passing birth defects and genomic changes that may have significant effect on the coming posterity. Additionally, we discussed its possible odd outcomes and the need for couples to be counseled on a timely family planning.
During the last few decades, the popularity for advanced parental age has elevated in couples due to professional and social commitments. There is a precipitous loss of female fecundity after 30-35 years of age with a rise in various adverse reproductive events from infertility, pregnancy complications to perinatal morbidity and mortality. The “ticking biological clock” for females is well understood, however this clock ticks for males too and seems it ticks even faster.
The unsystematic reports about older fathers usually have sounded fascinating, and the oldest paternity has been noted scientifically as 94 years. However, the advanced paternal age adversely affects testicular functions, semen parameters, sperm DNA integrity and sperm telomere length and increases de novo mutation rate and genetic and epigenetic alterations. The accrued genetic aberrations and mutations in male germ cells can lead to the elevated risk of reduced fertility, poor implantation and pregnancy rates as well as an elevated risk of birth defects and childhood disease burden.
A high rise in age childbearing by men has a tendency to bring on a number of negative reproductive outcomes. Based on birth statistics, the birth rate for males 25-44 years is growing having a decline observed in men < 25 years. There is a strong association between paternal age and extension of sperm DNA strand breaks. With advanced paternal age, there is a concomitant increase in DNA damage with increase in the incidence of semen abnormalities. The incidence of mutations in spermatozoa rises due to repeated premeiotic cell divisions, decreased antioxidant capacity and other diseases that are more likely to appear with ageing.
This adversely affects embryogenesis because advanced paternal age can also be associated with advanced maternal age and suboptimal quality of oocyte. This leads to incomplete, inefficient aberrant repair of sperm DNA damage by oocyte postfertilization. The advanced parental age in the planning of the first-born not just decreases the likelihood of conception but additionally increases the chance of DNA damage, gene deletions and genetic aneuploidies. Hosts of those factors are linked with pregnancy loss or even the birth of kids with hereditary abnormalities.
Using sperm from older men for ART might also result in pre- and post- implantation losses and hereditary malformations. In many installments of miscarriages, the role of advanced paternal age might be significant. Thus, there is a necessity to improve awareness not to delay childbearing as ageing affects the quality of gametes that is usually linked with adverse pregnancy outcomes.